Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Motivation in a Pharmaceutical company in Greece - Free Essay Example

The pharmaceutical sector faces stiff competition but a motivated salesforce can provide competitive advantage and facilitate in consolidating the presence of a firm in a highly regulated market. This study will test the relevance of modern motivation theories in the context of the recent financial crisis and add to the literature. The need for motivating sales representativesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in the pharmaceutical sector is discussed in the presence of downward employment pressures on the sector in Europe. This research will attempt to determine the applicability of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivators for salesforce motivation in pharmaceutical firms of Greece. The most significant extrinsic factors determined by literature include salary, opportunity of hierarchical advancement and bonuses, while the most important factors in terms of intrinsic motivation include challenging assignments, flexible work arrangements, team-based job design, verbal recognition, career development and self-efficacy. This research will identify the techniques that can be used to enhance salesforce motivation in pharmaceuticals sector of Greece. Determinants of sales representativesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ motivation in a Pharmaceutical company in Greece during the current recession 1.0-Introduction The sales representatives working for pharmaceutical firms in Europe face significant probability of downsizing due to the increasing focus on salesforce effectiveness measures as opposed to the traditional approach of placing importance to the size of the salesforce (Herwig 2003, pp. 42-56). The recent financial crisis has also led to the dwindling of jobs in Greece and across the European continent. The pharmaceutical industry is faced with cut-throat competition and a highly motivated salesforce can provide competitive advantage to a firm and facilitate continuing profitability and consolidation of the market share in a highly regulated market (Danner and Ruzicic 2006, pp. 2-5). This research proposal is intended to develop an appropriate approach to measure the significance of the determinants of motivation in the context of Greece and the financial crisis. 1.1-Statement of the problem à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“What factors determine the motivation levels for sales representativesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ at pharmaceutical firms in Greece given the conditions prevalent during the current financial crisis?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? 1.2-Aims and Objectives This research aims to determine the interaction of motivational factors for the salesforce teams in pharmaceuticals with changing economic conditions. It will test the relevance of modern motivation theories in their attempt to explain the importance of the determinants of motivation in the context of an impending financial crisis in Greece. The following are the objectives of this research. To identify the factors that help determine the motivation levels for sales representatives unique to the pharmaceutical sector in Greece. To study the cultural factors that influence motivation of sales representatives. To test the impact of a lack of job security on the motivation levels of salesforce in the pharmaceutical sector. To determine the methods of motivation acceptable to sales representatives. To identify the most useful technique that can be used to enhance motivation levels of sales employees. 1.3-Significance of the research There is a scarcity of sector related studies of salesforce motivation in the context of Greece; therefore, this research highlights the debate regarding the importance of motivating sales representatives in the pharmaceutical sector (Shim 2006, pp. 6-8). This study tests the relevance of motivation theories in the context of the recent financial crisis and adds to the modern literature that can be further studied in a regional context. The need for motivating the salesforce in the pharmaceutical sector is discussed in the presence of downward employment pressures on the industry. This study intends to incorporate the cultural differences and their impact on the success of motivation techniques utilised by firms (McAlister and Vandlen 2006, pp. 1-2). 2.0-Literature Review Erez and Isen (2002, p. 1055) use the expectancy theory to predict the motivation level of an individual and test the extent of motivation created in individuals based on their perception that hard work will result in superior performance in terms of rewards, recognition and satisfaction. The study indicated that when the link between performance and outcome is specified, all three components of expectancy motivation are influenced positively (Erez and Isen 2002, pp. 1065-1066). Seijts et al., (2004, p. 227) define goal setting theory as the contention that goal commitment leads to a higher task performance compared to a vague performance goal. The results indicate that goal orientation can complement the motivation created through goal setting and influence an improvement in performance of an employee. Maslow (1954) developed a theory of motivation and personality that provided a hierarchy of needs with the satisfaction of physical needs at the lowest level of hierarchy and self actualisation at the highest level; the theory argued that the first level of hierarchy must be fulfilled before an individual can proceed to the next level. Borkowski (2010, pp.118-124) discussed the ERG theory that provides an alternative approach to the hierarchy of needs by identifying three categories of needs: existence, relatedness and growth. The existence includes all the basic necessities required by an individual to survive, relatedness facilitates the development of relationships in the society and growth relates to achievement and success (Locke and Latham 2006, pp. 265-267). However, the ERG theory suggests that an individual can attain higher levels of hierarchy before fulfilling the lower level of needs. This theory also accounts for the difference in needs between different cultures and societies and caters to the explanation of the frustration-regression principle; implying that an individual may need existence related objects once relatedness is not satisfied (Bernard 1992, pp. 56-59; John 2005, pp. 16-19). McClellandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s theory of needs suggests that three needs of an individual need to be satisfied including achievement, power and affiliation; individuals are motivated by a combination of these needs and some individuals may exhibit a strong tendency to be motivated by one of these factors (Borkowski 2010, pp. 125). Schultz et al., (2006, pp. 23-27) discuss the equity theory predicts that workers often tend to react to the speed of the individuals surrounding them at work. The study tests the relevance of equity theory in explaining worker motivation and find that workers tend to react to the speed of co-workers but the reactions tend to vary significantly from one individual to another. Malik and Naeem (2009, pp. 26-28) study the motivational preferences of pharmaceutical salesforce in the context of the developing world and identify using a questionnaire analysis that the three most important motivators include pay and fringe benefits, job security and promotion opportunities. It is also found that the motivation created through pay and fringe benefits has similar impact on all demographics. The motivational impact of job security was the highest amongst sales representatives with less than ten years experience owing to the high unemployment and the recent financial crisis. Therefore, it is prescribed that special emphasis should be placed on severance pay, outplacement and early retirement before initiating downsizing of pharmaceuticals salesforce (Woodbine and Liu 2010, pp. 28-30). McAlister and Vandlen (2006, pp. 1-3) highlight the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators for salesforce motivation in pharmaceutical firms. The most significant extrinsic factors found in the study include salary, opportunity of hierarchical advancement and bonuses, while the most important factors in terms of intrinsic motivation include challenging assignments, flexible work arrangements, team-based job design, verbal recognitions, career development and self-efficacy. The study also argues that taking cultural and generational differences into account can also prove to significantly improve salesforce motivation. Singh (2010, p. 72) also studies the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, that may lead to higher job satisfaction in pharmaceutical salesforce and finds that growth, relationships with co-workers, promotion expectation, recognition, job security, operational procedures, delegation and quality of work supervision can lead to significant increase in m otivation (Jansson and Vessman 1997, pp. 202-203). The internal promotion schemes and growth from inside the company can improve motivation amongst salesforce. The study also indicates that demographics have no significant impact on motivation levels in sales force (Gonsalves 2008, p. 3). Longino (2007, pp. 1-13) found that salesforce motivation and performance in pharmaceutical firms is significantly high when an appropriate territorial distribution and design is used by these firms. Danner and Ruzicic (2006, pp. 1-7) argue that pharmaceutical salesforce are no more governed by the size of the team and instead by salesforce effectiveness; the widespread downsizing in the salesforce of pharmaceutical firms around Europe can lead to major concerns regarding job security and de-motivate the sales representatives. Therefore, increasing job security proves to be the most important factor for salesforce motivation in pharmaceuticals during the current financial crisis (Barnett 1999, pp. 6-10). 3.0-Research Methodology The research will utilise a combination of the qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the significance of the factors that lead to increased motivation for sales representatives (Longino 2007, pp. 1-4). The determinants of motivation highlighted by the literature review will be the focus of the analysis in the context of Greece and the recent financial crisis. The measurement of the impact of these factors on motivation levels will be quantitative; however, the research will be reinforced by a qualitative analysis of the motivation techniques used by pharmaceutical firms using a case study approach (Hongchatikul 2008, pp. 12-13). The secondary research will examine the literature that focuses on developing innovative means for handling sales representatives with different profiles and segments. Primary data for this research will be collected by developing a questionnaire for the sales representatives working at pharmaceuticals firms. 3.1-Sampling Methodology The sampling methodology chosen for this study involves a multi-stage sampling process involving two distinct phases of selection process of the firms used for analysis (Alan 2011, pp. 21-26). The initial stage involves the selection of the sectors that are the focus of this research; this is based on conscious selection of the large scale pharmaceutical firms operating in Greece. The second stage includes the selection of the sales representativesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ for questionnaires using a non-probability sample as the goal is to select a maximum size for the sample and the minimum sample size will be a hundred sales representatives (Gordy 2000, pp. 139-148). The research may also involve interviews with pharmaceutical firm managers depending on the resources and the cooperation available from the companies. 3.2-Resources The dissertation will accomplish a review of the literature on sales force motivation, motivation techniques and the impact of a recession on sales force motivation levels. The research resources include eminent online journals including the Science Direct, Blackwell Synergy, Jstor, Ebrary, Springer Link, Ingenta Connect, Google Books and Google Scholar, and the books and publications available at the library. The resource pool will be filtered after conducting a preliminary review of the literature available and the relevant literature will be sorted for inclusion into the dissertation. 3.3-Ethical Obligations It is crucial to uphold the integrity of research process and the ethical conduct of the researcher is manifest from the fact that a replica of all the literature and data used for the research will be maintained and made available upon request. The contact to the moral risks posed during the exploration process is also diminished by certifying that the researcher uses a manageable sample for case analysis to be able to conduct an in-depth analysis of the motivation techniques used by the selected firms (Nelson 2004, pp. 4). 4.0-Conclusion The research on salesforce motivation in the pharmaceuticals sector in Greece will not only add to the existing pool of literature on salesforce motivation but it will also create interest in the testing of modern theories of motivation and the impact of the recent financial crisis on the determinants of salesforce motivation (Iguisi 2009, pp. 147-149). This provides incentive for sector based studies on salesforce motivation and an opportunity to compare the results obtained in different industries and across diverse cultures and economies. References Alan, B., (2011). Business research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barnett, C., (1999). Motivation theories: Integration. New Hampshire: Whittemore School of Business and Economics, University of New Hampshire. Bernard, W., (1992). Human motivation: Metaphors, theories and research. Michigan: Sage Publishers. Borkowski, N., (2010). Organisation behaviour in healthcare. Sudbury: Jones and Barlett Publishers. Danner, S., and Ruzicic, A., (2006). The European pharmaceutical industry: Delivering sales excellence in turbulent times A roadmap for getting the basics right and exploring the future. Munich: Roland Berger. Erez, A., and Isen, A., (2002). The influence of positive effect on the components of expectancy motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87 (6), pp. 1055-1067. Gonsalves, B., (2008). Retaining and motivating your sales force in Asia. New York: Mercer Series. Gordy, M., (2000). A comparative anatomy of credit risk models. Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 24 (1), pp. 119à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å"149. Herwig, J., (2003). Motivate and reward: Performance appraisal and incentive systems for business success. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Hongchatikul, U., (2008). The impact of organisational development interventions on employee commitment and motivation and customer satisfaction: A case study. Bangkok: Graduate School of Business, Hua Mak Campus. Iguisi, O., (2009). Motivation related values across cultures. African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 3 (4), pp. 141-150. Jansson, S., and Vessman, J., (1997). The industrial point of view: Competence development in Pharmaceutical industry. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, Vol. 61, pp. 202-203. John, M., (2005). Organizational behaviour I. Essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: M.E Sharpe Incorporation. Locke, E., and Latham, G., (2006). New directions in goal setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 15 (5), pp. 265-268. Longino, E., (2007). Sales management control, territory design, sales force performance, and sales organisational effectiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Boca Raton: Eric Longino. Malik, M., and Naeem, B., (2009). Motivational preferences of pharmaceutical sales force: Empirical evidence from Pakistan. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, Vol. 47 (1), pp. 19-30. McAlister, R., and Vandlen, C., (2006). What types of rewards or recognition practices motivate individuals to be creative and innovative, particularly those in RD functions whose products are developed over long time periods? Cornell: Cornell University. Nelson, K., (2004). Motivating high performance in pharmaceutical sales teams: Key compensation and team process factors. New York: Lantern Group. Rye, D., (1998). 1,001 ways to inspire: your organization, your team, and yourself. Victoria: Castle Books. Schultz, K., Schoenherr, T., and Nembhard, D., (2006). Equity theory effects on worker motivation and speed on an assembly line. Boston: Harvard Business School. Seijts, G., Latham, G., Tasa, K., and Latham, B., (2004). Goal setting and goal orientation: n integration of two different yet related literatures. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47 (2), pp. 227-239. Shim, S., (2006). Adoption of pharmaceutical sales force automation systems: An exploratory study. South Orange: Stillman School of Business, Seton Hall University. Singh, V., (2010). Job satisfaction among pharmaceutical sales force in South Africa: A case with special reference to Cape Town. Ä °Ãƒâ€¦Ã… ¸letme AraÃ…Å ¸tÄ ±rmalarÄ ± Dergisi, Vol. 2 (2), pp. 63-74. Woodbine, G., and Liu, J., (2010). Leadership styles and the moral choice of internal auditors. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organisation Studies, Vol. 15 (1), pp. 28-35.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Atrocities of the Holocaust Essay - 1507 Words

Of all the examples of injustice against humanity in history, the Jewish Holocaust is one of the most prominent. From 1933 to 1945, the Nazis waged a vicious war against Jews and other lesser races. This war came to a head with the Final Solution in 1938. One of the most horrific results of the Final Solution were the scores of concentration and death camps spread across Nazi Germany, Poland, and other parts of Nazi-controlled Europe. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, people around the world were shocked by final tallies of human losses, and the people responsible were punished for their inhuman acts. The Holocaust was a dark time in the history of the world. The beginnings of the Holocaust can be traced as far back as 1933, when†¦show more content†¦This was the first major act of violence against Jews in Germany. The Nazi’s intentions were now clear. Nazi plans for the Jews of Europe were outlined in the Final Solution to the Jewish question in 1938. In a meeting of some of Hitlers top officials, the idea of the complete annihilation of Jews in Europe was hatched. By the time the meeting was over, the Final Solution had been created. The plans included in the Final Solution included the deportation, exploitation, and eventual extermination of European Jews. In September 1939, Germany invaded western Poland. Most, if not all Jews in German-occupied lands were rounded up and taken either to ghettos or to concentration camps. The ghettos, which were located inside cities, were a sort of city/prison to segregate Jews from the rest of the public. Conditions in ghettos were horrific. Jews were subject too mass overcrowding, lack of food, and lack of sanitation, as well as brutality by Nazi guards. By June 1941, most of the Jews in Europe lived in lands controlled by Nazi Germany. The SS deployed 3000 death squads, or Einsatzgruppen, to dispatch Jews in large numbers (Wallechinsky). In September 1941, all Jews were forced to wear yellow Stars of D avid on their armsShow MoreRelatedThe Atrocities Of The Holocaust864 Words   |  4 PagesThe atrocities of the Holocaust placed the German Jewish population in a quagmire of antisemitic persecution, but it also spread beyond Germany to affect Jews throughout Europe. Poland was such a country. The first nation invaded by Nazi Germany and the last to be liberated, the population of Polish Jews was nearly eradicated. How were the Nazis able to accomplish such a feat in a nation where antisemitism had not been as prevalent? Aside from forcibly introducing antisemitic policy into PolandRead MoreThe Holocaust: A Morbid Atrocity that Made People Question Humanity1338 Words   |  5 PagesThe Holocaust, a morbid atrocity that made people question humanity, was the cause of millions of deaths. One of those victims of this brutality was Anne Frank, a young Jewish girl who hid from the Nazis along with her family. Although she was merely ordinary, Anne Frank kept a diary which became a significant, historical artifact in the modern world as it details her account of concealing her identity from the outside world. Her story, told in an innocent perspective, allows individuals to reflectRead MoreGermany s Postwar Silence : The Horrible Atrocities Of The Holocaust1604 Words   |  7 Pages Germany’s Postwar Silence The horrible atrocities of the Holocaust remain an important subject in World history. Although very few people are alive from the Nazi era the horrors of the era still haunt Germany. Should the generations of German people be held collectively responsible for the Nazi crimes? If you were born in 1940 the start of the war, you would be 75 years old today. The younger generation of German’s look at that period of history differently than those alive post war. 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However, the Holocaust completely stripped men of most of these characteristics. The Holocaust did not allow men to be men. Holocaust art, the â€Å"Tale of the Sprinter† by Sudeep Pagedar, and VladekRead MoreEssay on Holocaust: The Unforgettable1569 Words   |  7 Pageshistory of the Holocaust is taught systematically in all school systems throughout America and most of the known-world. The atrocities committed by Nazi-Germany are well-known and are likely to never be forgotten. The proof behind Hitler’s Final Solution is undeniable. However, with the rise of Ho locaust deniers comes the grave danger of forgetting the truth behind the Holocaust, and dooming ourselves to repeating history once again. Holocaust deniers claim that certain events of the Holocaust never happenedRead MoreThe Nazi Party s Inner Circle Essay1538 Words   |  7 Pagespeople come to commit atrocities against defenceless victims? Hitler was an evil man, or at least was prepared to employ evil actions to achieve his goals. There is very little in literature to suggest anything contrary to this opinion. Most literature suggests that while Hitler had some level of power over Himmler and the rest of the Nazi Party’s inner circle, they were also well aware of the extent and implications of their actions. Despite this, the atrocities of the Holocaust were not carried outRead MoreThe Holocaust : An Special Incident958 Words   |  4 PagesOver the last two and a half millennia, the Jewish people have faced hardship and intolerance from various groups living beside them. A number of historians however believe that of all the atrocities committed against the Jewish people, none parallel the Holocaust. While these historians believe that the Holocaust was a unique occurrence, history rejects this notion of Nazi anti-semitism being an special incident. Disregarding preceding events, most notably the enslavement of the Jewish people byRead MoreThe s Argument That The Holocaust Is Only Available Through Representation758 Words   |  4 Pageslearning from traumatic experiences. Miller references Susan Suleiman’s argument that the Holocaust is â€Å"only available through representation†. Suleiman made this argument in response to Holocaust deniers who claim that fictitious memoirs confirm the inexistence of the Holocaust. However, the point supports the idea that art, including literature, allows the public to experience something like the Holocaust that otherwise would be not be available to experience. On the other hand, Miller successfullyRead MoreThe Holocaust And Western Imperialism And The Holocaust1271 Words   |  6 Pagessake of being evil. They always justify to themselves in some way that all of their actions are for the greater good and that the actions they have committed are not atrocities. This has to be done since normal individuals cannot justify to themselves that they are immoral. Both western imperialism and the Holocaust had their atrocities justified by the illusion of progress. Even though numerous millions of people were slaughtered in these campaigns, many of the people doing the killing, believed that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Importance Of Time In Business Management - 1431 Words

My strategy is checking my emails periodically throughout my workday. It helps to keep the flow and keep my emails from becoming backed up. With being a lead in loan operations department my employees depend on me now more than ever. Working in the loan department I constantly multitask between two departments indirect and direct lending. Seriously there is not enough time in the workday and I am constantly finding myself staying over just to complete daily tasks. I went from receiving barely one (1) email to over twenty (20) to forty (40) a day and at times it does become overwhelming. Being considerate of other people’s time, along with showing respect for mines. Where I am currently employed; everything is all about instant†¦show more content†¦Cardon, P. (2012). Business communication: Developing leaders for a networked world. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. With the less affective email the subject name is not clear it is not even indicating what the email is about. The attached document does not have a complete name. You can tell that email is poorly written and there was not much thought put into conveying the message. The more effective email has a detailed subject line. The attached document is labeled correctly, it also address a specific person in the opening. The letter is detailed and gets straight to the point. There is also a closing attached, this letter seems to be professionally written. This leads me back to when I first started writing emails; my boss was consistently receiving complaints. What I have noticed from over a year ago is that my emails were poorly written and did not make since. I was used to sending email but not in a professional manner. I would like to apologize for my behavior today. I feel that the way I was acting was very unprofessional and inappropriate. I also would like to point out that I never ever lose my temper, but with working with others, we all should be considerate of others behaviors and opinions. At this point, I am ready to move forward and get on with the project. Well, for one, it is seeking the attention of the board members to put more focus on attracting new and younger members. IShow MoreRelatedInventory Management Practices in Selected Medium-Scale Boutiques in Sta.Rosa, Laguna1357 Words   |  6 PagesINVENTORY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN SELECTED MEDIUM-SCALE BOUTIQUES IN STA. ROSA CITY, LAGUNA Chapter 1: Introduction and Background of the Study Introduction Inventory to many small business owners is one of the more visible and tangible aspects of doing business. Raw materials, goods in process and finished goods all represent various forms of inventory. Each type represents money tied up until the inventory leaves the company as purchased products. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Pitfall Of The Insensitive Essay Example For Students

The Pitfall Of The Insensitive Essay Still Killing us Softly by Jean Kilbourne gives us prime examples of how the media tries to influence the way we see our society. The advertisement examples that she gives show how they portray the ideal woman as young, thin and beautiful, as well as making all men to look like powerful and insensitive animals (which they arent). Both of the distortions use pathos as their persuasive devises by evoking emotion in the consumers to cause them to buy their product.In almost all advertisements with the exception of Depends and Polydent, all the models are probably not over twenty-five. This may have worked in the 1930s when, according the American Academy of Anti-Aging, the life expectancy was thirty-five. However, that is not the case today, when the average person living in America is predicted to live to 85. The media is entirely misrepresenting the average person just to make it look as if you use their product; your age will be preserved. This causes many consumers to become dishear tened and want to look younger.Another marketing strategy is to use models that are tall and slender. By doing this in clothing ads they lure the consumer into thinking that it is the clothes that are making them look that perfect, when actually, its for the most part camera tricks and a lot of starvation. Advertisers often use fear tactics, or slippery slope to scare the women into thinking that their product is the only thing keeping them from being overweight. Most often these cases are found in weight loss pills and appetite suppressants that show before and after pictures of someone who has successfully used their product.Have you ever seen a model in an ad for beauty products or a clothing store that was not completely gorgeous? It makes pretty good sense doesnt it? Who would want to buy clothing worn by plain or even ugly people? I find myself falling into this superficial trap every time I look at the circulars in the Sunday paper. I want to look as perfect as they do, and s ometimes think that by wearing their clothes, my looks will improve. However it does not take me long to realize how ridiculous I sound. Women buy cosmetics for the same reason, to improve their looks, plain and simple. They want a product that brings out their features and accentuates their beauty. However, these models do not represent the majority of the skin types or complexions of women. In fact these models do not even have this perfect skin, rather its a product of meticulous airbrushing, but few consumers take that into account. Most just become envious of these models and kick themselves for that one night they were too lazy to take off their makeup. Men are also labeled in the media. Most male models have a commanding and powerful sense of style. They always look in shape whether they are in a three-piece suit or in jogging shorts and a tank top. Particularly in mens cologne commercials the men are always handsome and have an ideal body. Just as women are looked at like sex object in some advertisements, women equally gawk at men. Both sexes, to a certain extent, enjoy attention from the opposite sex. These ads cause the consumer to see life through the eyes of theses models and they conclude that if it looks good on the models, then it must look good on them. Once again Pathos, that little trick Cicero thought was so important, prevails (322). After hearing what Kilbourne has to say, the consumer is ultimately disgusted with him or herself. However, this is good thing! We recognize how advertisers use pathos to evoke emotions of unsatisfaction about the way we look, and strive to become perfect by using their products. After th ese realizations the consumer is less likely to fall into the advertisers pitfall and more likely to conceive their motives.

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Lab Report Conclusion Essay Example

Lab Report Conclusion Paper Conclusion In this experiment, we measured the mass of 4 gases; oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, and lab gas. We took a Copilot bag, and turned into a non-stretchy balloon, and filled with each gas and measured the apparent mass then calculated the actual mass, then find a ratio between the mass of oxygen and the other gases. We tried to keep the pressure about the same each time so our calculations would be more accurate. We found out that the heaviest was carbon dioxide, and the lightest was helium. In fact, helium and lab gas had a density below 0. Anyways, it turned out that our apparent masses were very different from our actual mass calculations; for example oxygens apparent mass was 28. Egg but its actual mass was 4. Egg. We also found the ratios, and after collecting class data, our carbon dioxide ratio was 1. 39/g, our helium ratio was . 21/g, and our lab gas ratio was . 59/ lag. Then we had to come up with two hypotheses to figure out why one gas is heavier (denser) than another? Well, we came up with hypothesis : The different molecule mass hypothesis, and hypothesis #2: The more molecules in the same volume hypothesis. After having a class discussion, turns out that hypothesis one is more reliable due to Avogadro hypothesis; if two gases at the same temperature and equal volume contain equal amount of molecules. So according to the statement above, the carbon dioxide molecules must be 1. Xx bigger than an oxygen molecule, a helium molecule must be . Xx bigger, and . Xx bigger than an oxygen molecule. We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Conclusion specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Conclusion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Lab Report Conclusion specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer

Friday, March 13, 2020

5 Billboard Taglines That Advertise Errors

5 Billboard Taglines That Advertise Errors 5 Billboard Taglines That Advertise Errors 5 Billboard Taglines That Advertise Errors By Mark Nichol I strongly advise against employing billboards to teach you proper English grammar and spelling, but you can certainly use them to learn what not to do. Here are some pain-inducing billboard boo-boos: 1. â€Å"Are you in or out?† This tagline from the remake of Ocean’s Eleven won’t strike many people as erroneous, but the omission of a comma ruins the effect for me. Read as is, this sentence calls for upward inflection: Are you one of these? But the inflection should fall, and whether your voice catches instantaneously before your pitch falls after in or you don’t actually pause, a comma signals the difference: Are you this, or are you that? 2. â€Å"All day, everyday.† This error in an advertisement for a major chain supermarket went viral some years ago, and the English language hasn’t been able to shake the bug since. Make everyday two words, and call me in the morning. 3. â€Å"Name’s Mel-care to have a drink?† This confused come-on appeared in an advertisement for Tanqueray gin featuring a comely woman inviting the billboard viewer to join her for a cocktail. With a disregard for the visual esthetics of language endemic to the marketing industry, the copywriter puzzled readers with what appeared to be a non sequitur reference in a liquor ad to a variant of Medicare known as Mel-care. By separating Mel’s introduction from her invitation with a mere hyphen when a mighty em dash was called for (â€Å"Name’s Mel care to have a drink?†), this multimillion-dollar ad campaign cried out for a pocket-change fix. The ubiquitous unwitting use of hyphens in place of dashes is wrong, but, almost worse, it’s ugly. 4. â€Å"You provide the truck. We’ll bring the barbeque.† An ad for a pickup truck big enough to haul around an oil-barrel barbecue grill misspelled the last word. â€Å"But, Mark, we see it like that all the time!† Yes, you see it misspelled all the time. It’s an understandable error, extending from the slang abbreviation BBQ, and it may end up in the dictionary someday. But it’s not there yet. Honor the language. 5. â€Å"Don’t stare, you might miss your exit.† Come on, a comma is too weak to convey the cadence of this sentence. (It didn’t work in that sentence, either, did it?) There’s a definite break in the two parts of this sentence, and the rhythm cries out for an em dash or even a period after stare. Again, as in the first and third examples, the copywriter failed to use the nuances of punctuation to help upload the desire to buy a product or use a service to the consumer’s brain. This message is brought to you by DailyWritingTips.com: When you seek to sell, consider not only words but also punctuation in the sell’s structure. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Structure A Story: The Eights of Misplaced Modifiers

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Mintzbergs 5 Ps for Strategy (1987) presents an incomplete view of the Essay

Mintzbergs 5 Ps for Strategy (1987) presents an incomplete view of the topic - Essay Example Strategy formation is seen as a conception process in planning. Plan represents the alternative course of action, a set of guidelines to deal with situations (Mintzberg, 1987a). Strategy encompasses leaders establishing organization direction based on a course of action that is predetermined. This means that planning involves integrating the whole set of decisions and formalizing them before implementing them. Planning is executed through systematic process that characterizes the planning aspect. Taking Coco cola Inc, as an example of corporation, it has acquired growth through acquisition strategy. This has been one of the major plans by the corporation to achieve competitive advantage. Mintzeberg (1987) suggested that explicit and systematic procedures if followed may surface strategy making process. This may be achievable through formulating a plan. The organization needs to position itself by ensuring its strategy making is driven by being ahead of the competitors. This is in other words is known as positioning strategically. Regarding perspective, strategy making is guided by the meanings that come along with particular practices and behavior in an organization. Boyd and Reuning (1998) attempted to come up with planning operationalization and with regard to this tested empirically some indicators of a consistent plan such as statement showing the mission of an organization, trend analysis, ad organization’s competitors’ analysis, the long term and short term goals, and evaluation of ongoing operations of an organization. This planning model has been tested and proved to be valid and reliable. It thus clearly shows Mintzberg’s view as incomplete. In order to strategically, reach a better quality of outputs, managers are guided by appropriate methodologies and analytical tools. According to Zahra and Dess (2001), these analytical tools take the form of SWOT analysis. These abbreviations stand